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Levels of Mental Retardation:
Mental-health professionals classify patients into one of four levels of retardation.
Mild Mental Retardation
IQ scores from 50 to 69
Includes about 85 percent of the mentally retarded population
Individuals in this group can often live on their own with community support.
Moderate Mental Retardation
IQ scores between 35 and 50
Includes about 10 percent of the mentally retarded population
Individuals in this group can often lead relatively normal lives provided they receive some level of supervision. Such individuals often live in group homes with other mentally retarded people.
Severe Mental Retardation
IQ scores between 20 and 35
Includes about 3 percent to 4 percent of the mentally retarded population
Individuals in this category can often master the most basic skills of living, such as cleaning and dressing themselves. They often live in group homes.
Profound Mental Retardation
IQ scores of less than 20
Includes about 1 percent to 2 percent of the mentally retarded population
Individuals at this level can often develop basic communication and self-care skills. They often have other mental disorders.
Causes of mental retardation
Risk factors are related to the causes. Causes of mental retardation can be roughly broken down into several categories:
Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth)
1. Congenital CMV
2. Congenital rubella
3. Congenital toxoplasmosis
5. HIV infection
Genetic abnormalities and inherited metabolic disorders
1. Congenital hypothyroid
2. Hypoglycemia (poorly regulated diabetes mellitus) is a condition that occurs when your blood sugar (glucose) is too low.
3. Reye syndrome: Reye syndrome is sudden (acute) brain damage (encephalopathy) and liver function problems of unknown cause.
4. The syndrome has occurred with the use of aspirin to treat chickenpox or the flu in children. However, it has become very uncommon since aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in children.
5. Hyperbilirubinemia (very high bilirubin levels in babies. Bilirubin is a product that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin. Total and direct bilirubin are usually measured to screen for or to monitor liver or gallbladder problems.)
1. Intrauterine exposure to alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, and other drugs
2. Lead poisoning
3. Methylmercury poisoning
Trauma (before and after birth)
1. Intracranial hemorrhage before or after birth
2. Lack of oxygen to the brain before, during, or after birth
3. Severe head injury
Unexplained (this largest category is for unexplained occurrences of mental retardation - 75% of cases)
Symptoms and Prevention
The symptoms of mental retardation usually appear early in life. Children with the disorder tend to develop more slowly than normal. They may learn to sit up, to walk, to talk, and to perform other simple tasks later than average. Mental retardation is often accompanied by other symptoms as well. These symptoms include aggression, a tendency toward self-injury, and personality changes. As a child grows older, the best indication of mental retardation is the standard intelligence tests.
• Continued infantile behaviour
• Decreased learning ability
• Failure to meet intellectual developmental markers
• Inability to meet educational demands at school
• Lack of curiosity
Changes to normal behaviours depend on the severity of the condition. Mild retardation may be associated with a lack of curiosity and quiet behaviour. Severe mental retardation is associated with infantile behaviour throughout life.
Genetic: Prenatal screening for genetic defects and genetic counselling for families at risk for known heritable disorders can decrease the incidence of genetically caused mental retardation.
Social: Government programs to ensure adequate nutrition are available to the underprivileged in the first and most critical years of life. These programs can reduce retardation associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and deprivation will also help.
Role of BHEL Doctors.
Arivalayam is suituated right in front of our BHEL hospital which also play a vital role in taking care of our children with their medical needs .As we know that children with special needs require medical attention frequently,our children are being treated in BHEL hospital as and when required .They are also treated as in-patients and given immediate medical attention during emergencies.
Apart from the above said treatments our hospital Doctors conduct various medical camps, IQ test Eye camp, Ortho Camp, Dental camp, Blood group tests,...and all the students are screened in the beginning of every year, proper medical records are maintained for each& every student.